Chloe and Lucinda: Delaware's Nubian Goats

In Newark, Delaware, the home of the University of Delaware campus, a bronze-cast sculpture of two Nubian goats is an interesting if not unusual landmark. Donated by Edward Jefferson and his wife Naomi in honor of their sons, the goats (known as Chloe and Lucinda) were created by artist André Harvey using a technique known as lost wax casting. In the fall of 2011, undergraduate students in the Art Conservation program at UD planned and executed a conservation treatment on these goats to preserve them for future classes to enjoy. Click on the links below to learn more about the history of Chloe and Lucinda.


Nubian Goats in the News

A recent article by UDaily (the University of Delaware’s online news source) about our conservation efforts on the Nubian Goats sculpture.

Permalink Fall 2011 art conservation students
Photo courtesy of Tatiana Ausema

The Lost Wax Casting Process

The Lost Wax Casting Process is a two step method of producing bronze statues.

Step 1:

A soft clay version of the desired finished statue is sculpted, then covered by a rubber coating that transfers the details carved in the clay version. This coating is support by plaster. The clay is removed, leaving behind an empty shell that is then filled with hot wax.

Step 2:

The wax statue is removed from the mold, and then re-examined and corrected by the artist. This wax statue is covered by a ceramic mold that will be able to withstand the high temperatures of the molten bronze. The wax is melted out of the mold, becoming “lost,” then molten bronze is pourred in its place.

After the bronze has cooled, the ceramic mold is chipped away to reveal the final sculpture. The artist adds in final details by filing, grinding, sanding, and carefully welding.

Finishing Touches:

The final step is adding color to the statue, called a patina, using heat and various chemicals. The patina is a permanent part of the sculpture that also helps to protect it, since the outermost surface of the statue is oxidized in the patina process.

The foundry mark and sculpture edition number are hammered into the statue, then the whole statue is waxed to add a further layer of protection for the patina.

An Artist’s Touch:

Andre Harvey is unique in that he is highly involved in the production of his pieces. Many artists only create the clay mold, and leave the rest of the process to the foundry, but Harvey does all of the correcting and patina application himself. He strongly believes in taking an active part in the creation of his pieces, cast in such an eternal material.

If you would like to learn more about the lost-wax casting process, Andre Harvey’s website provides an excellent summary with images.


About the Donors: Edward and Naomi Jefferson

A former chairman and CEO for E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Edward G. Jefferson died in 2006 but left behind a long legacy of philanthropy. He left his native England in 1951 to join the DuPont Company and worked there as a chemist for a number of years. He obtained the position of senior vice president of DuPont in 1973 and later went on to serve as chairman and CEO from 1981 to 1986. In 1991, the University of Delaware awarded Jefferson an honorary doctoral degree. He developed close ties with this institution, serving on the Board of Trustees from 1980 to 1997 and ultimately donating the Nubian Goats sculpture to the University of Delaware in honor of his sons. Both Peter Love Jefferson and Edward Graham Jefferson Jr. predeceased their father, but Chloe and Lucinda stand in a peaceful part of the campus as a tribute to their memories.

The sculpture was installed in 2001.


University of Delaware Art Conservation Department

The Art Conservation Department at the University of Delaware offers undergraduate courses in addition to graduate programs in conjunction with Winterthur Museum. The undergraduate program is a four-year program structured to teach its students about the care and preservation of art works and other cultural artifacts. In the sophomore year those studying to be conservators typically take a class entitled “Care and Preservation of Cultural Property.” The class is spread over two semesters. This year the honors project for the fall semester was the conservation of André Harvey’s Nubian Goats sculpture on campus.